Kinh Nhất Dạ Hiền Gỉa

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KINH NHẤT DẠ HIỀN GỈA
Hòa thượng Thích Minh Châu dịch Việt
(Trích trong: Kinh Trung Bộ (Majjhima Nikàya) 131)

Như vầy tôi nghe.

Một thời Thế Tôn
Savatthi (Xá-vệ), Jetavana (Kỳ-đà lâm), tại tịnh xá ông Anathapindika
(Cấp Cô Độc). Ở đấy Thế Tôn gọi các Tỷ-kheo: “Này các
Tỷ-kheo”. –“Thưa vâng, bạch Thế Tôn”. Các vị Tỷ-kheo ấy
vâng đáp Thế Tôn. Thế Tôn nói như sau:

— Này các Tỷ-kheo, Ta
sẽ thuyết giảng cho các Ông: ‘Nhứt dạ Hiền giả’ (Bhaddekaratta),
tổng thuyết và biệt thuyết. Hãy nghe và suy nghiệm kỹ, Ta
sẽ thuyết giảng.

— Thưa vâng, bạch Thế
Tôn
.

Các Tỷ-kheo ấy vâng
đáp Thế Tôn. Thế Tôn giảng như sau:

Quá khứ không
truy tìm


Tương lai không ước
vọng
.


Quá khứ đã đoạn
tận,


Tương lai lại chưa
đến,


Chỉ có pháp hiện
tại


Tuệ quán chính ở
đây.


Không động, không
rung chuyển


Biết vậy, nên tu
tập
,


Hôm nay nhiệt tâm
làm,


Ai biết chết ngày
mai?


Không ai điều đình
được,


Với đại quân thần
chết,


Trú như vậy nhiệt
tâm,


Đêm ngày không mệt
mỏi
,


Xứng gọi Nhứt dạ
Hiền,


Bậc an tịnh, trầm
lặng
.

Và này các Tỷ-kheo, thế
nào là truy tìm quá khứ?
Vị ấy nghĩ: “Như vậy là sắc của
tôi trong quá khứ”, và truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy; “Như
vậy là thọ của tôi trong quá khứ”, và truy tìm sự hân hoan
trong ấy; “Như vậy là tưởng của tôi trong quá khứ”, và
truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy; “Như vậy là hành của tôi trong
quá khứ”, và truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy, “Như vậy, là
thức của tôi trong quá khứ”, và truy tìm sự hân hoan trong
ấy. Như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, là truy tìm quá khứ.

Và này các Tỷ-kheo,
thế nào là không truy tìm quá khứ? Vị ấy nghĩ: “Như vậy
là sắc của tôi trong quá khứ”, và không truy tìm sự hân
hoan
trong ấy; “Như vậy là thọ của tôi trong quá khứ”, và
không truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy; “Như vậy là tưởng của
tôi… Như vậy là hành của tôi… Như vậy là thức của
tôi trong quá khứ”; và không truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy.
Như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, là không truy tìm quá khứ.

Và này các Tỷ-kheo,
thế nào ước vọng tương lai? Vị ấy nghĩ: “Mong rằng như
vậy sẽ là sắc của tôi trong tương lai”, và truy tìm sự
hân hoan trong ấy; “Mong rằng như vậy sẽ là thọ của tôi
trong tương lai”, và truy tìm sự hân hoan trong ấy; “Mong rằng
như vậy là tưởng của tôi… là hành của tôi… Như vậy
là thức của tôi trong tương lai”, và truy tìm sự hân hoan
trong ấy. Như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, là ước vọng trong tương
lai.

Và này các Tỷ-kheo,
thế nào là không ước vọng trong tương lai? Vị ấy nghĩ:
“Mong rằng như vậy sẽ là sắc của tôi trong tương lai”, và
không truy tìm hân hoan trong ấy; “Mong rằng như vậy sẽ là
thọ của tôi trong tương lai”, và không truy tìm hân hoan trong
ấy; “Mong rằng như vậy sẽ là tưởng… sẽ là hành… sẽ
là thức của tôi trong tương lai, “và không truy tìm hân hoan
trong ấy. Như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, ước vọng trong tương
lai
.

Và này các Tỷ-kheo,
như thế nào là bị lôi cuốn trong các pháp hiện tại?
đây, này các Tỷ-kheo, có kẻ vô văn phàm phu không đi đến
các bậc Thánh, không thuần thục pháp các bậc Thánh, không
tu tập pháp các bậc Thánh; không đi đến các bậc Chân nhân,
không thuần thục pháp các bậc Chân nhân, không tu tập pháp
các bậc Chân nhân; quán sắc là tự ngã, hay quán tự ngã
là có sắc, hay quán sắc là trong tự ngã, hay quán tự ngã
là trong sắc, hay vị ấy quán thọ là tự ngã, hay quán tự
ngã là có thọ; hay quán thọ là trong tự ngã, hay quán tự
ngã là trong thọ, hay vị ấy quán tưởng là trong tự ngã,
hay quán tự ngã là có tưởng, hay vị ấy quán tưởng
tự ngã, hay quán tự ngã là có tưởng, hay vị ấy quán hành
là tự ngã, hay vị ấy quán tự ngã là có hành, hay vị ấy
quán hành là trong tự ngã, hay vị ấy quán tự ngã là trong
hành; hay vị ấy quán thức là tự ngã, hay quán tự ngã là
có thức, hay quán thức là trong tự ngã, hay quán tự ngã là
trong thức. Như vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, là bị lôi cuốn trong
các pháp hiện tại.

Và này các Tỷ-kheo,
thế nào là không bị lôi cuốn trong các pháp hiện tại?
đây, này các Tỷ-kheo, có vị Đa văn Thánh đệ tử đi đến
các bậc Thánh, thuần thục pháp các bậc Thánh, tu tập pháp
các bậc Thánh, đi đến các bậc Chân nhân, thuần thục pháp
các bậc Chân nhân, tu tập pháp các bậc Chân nhân. Vị này
không quán sắc là tự ngã, không quán tự ngã là có sắc,
không quán sắc là trong tự ngã, không quán tự ngã trong sắc;
không quán thọ… không quán tưởng… không quán hành… không
quán
thức là tự ngã, không quán tự ngã là có thức, không
quán
thức trong tự ngã, không quán tự ngã trong thức. Như
vậy, này các Tỷ-kheo, là không bị lôi cuốn trong các pháp
hiện tại
.

Quá khứ không
truy tìm


Tương lai không ước
vọng
.


Quá khứ đã đoạn
tận,


Tương lai lại chưa
đến,


Chỉ có pháp hiện
tại


Tuệ quán chính ở
đây.


Không động, không
rung chuyển


Biết vậy, nên tu
tập
,


Hôm nay nhiệt tâm
làm,


Ai biết chết ngày
mai?


Không ai điều đình
được,


Với đại quân thần
chết,


Trú như vậy nhiệt
tâm,


Đêm ngày không mệt
mỏi
,


Xứng gọi Nhứt dạ
Hiền,


Bậc an tịnh, trầm
lặng
.

Khi ta nói: “Này các Tỷ-kheo,
Ta sẽ giảng cho các Ông: ‘Nhứt dạ Hiền giả’, tổng thuyết
và biệt thuyết”, chính duyên ở đây mà nói vậy.

Thế Tôn thuyết giảng
như vậy. Các Tỷ-kheo ấy hoan hỷ, tín thọ lời dạy của
Thế Tôn.

Hòa
thượng
Thích Minh Châu dịch Việt
Trích trong: Kinh Trung Bộ (Majjhima Nikàya) 131

 

Majjhima
Nikaya 131

Bhaddekaratta
Sutta

An
Auspicious
Day

Translated
by Bhikkhu Thanissaro



Translator’s Introduction

The title of this discourse
has sparked some controversy, centered on the word “ratta.” Modern translators
in Asian vernaculars are unanimous in rendering it as “night,” a reading
seconded by Sanskrit and Tibetan versions of the discourse. Translators
working in English have balked at this reading, however, on the grounds
that the title it yields — “Auspicious One-Night” — makes no sense. Thus
I.B. Horner drops the word “ratta” for her translation entirely; Ven Ñanamoli
renders it as “attachment,” yielding “One Fortunate Attachment”; and Ven.
Ñanananda, taking his cue from Ven. Ñanamoli, renders it as “lover,”
yielding “Ideal Lover of Solitude.”

If we look at idiomatic
Pali usage, though, we find that there is good reason to stick with the
traditional reading of “night.” There is a tendency in the Pali Canon to
speak of a 24-hour period of day and night as a “night.” This would be
natural for a society that used a lunar calendar — marking the passage
of time by the phases of the moon — just as it is natural for us, using
a solar calendar, to call the same period of time a “day.” As the verse
that forms the summary of this discourse explicitly mentions one practicing
“relentlessly both day and night,” the “night” in the title of the discourse
would seem to be a 24-hour, rather than a 12-hour, night — and so I have
chosen to render the Pali idiom into its English equivalent: An Auspicious
Day.

Ven. Ñanamoli is probably
right in assuming that “bhaddekaratta” was a pre-Buddhist term that the
Buddha adopted and re-interpreted in light of his own teaching. The point
of the discourse would thus be that — instead of the play of cosmic forces,
the stars, or the lucky omens — one’s own development of the mind’s attitude
to time is what makes a day auspicious.


I have heard that on one
occasion the Blessed One was staying in Savatthi, at Jetavana, the park
of Anathapindika. There he addressed the monks: “Monks!”

“Yes, lord,” the monks replied.

The Blessed One said: “Monks,
I will teach you the summary and exposition of one who has had an auspicious
day. Listen and pay close attention. I will speak.”

“As you say, lord,” the monks
replied.

The Blessed One said:

One would not
chase after the past,


nor place expectations
on the future.


What is past

is
left behind.


The future

is
as yet unreached.


Whatever quality is present

one clearly sees right there,

right there.

Unvanquished, unshaken,

that’s how one develops
the mind.

Ardently doing one’s duty
today,


for — who knows? —
tomorrow


death
may come.


There is no bargaining

with Death and his mighty
horde.

Whoever lives thus ardently,

relentlessly

both
day and night,


has truly had an auspicious
day:


So says the Peaceful
Sage.

“And how, monks, does one chase
after the past? One gets carried away with the delight of ‘In the past
I had such a form (body)’…’In the past I had such a feeling’…’In the
past I had such a perception’…’In the past I had such a thought-fabrication”…’In
the past I had such a consciousness.’ This is called chasing after the
past.

“And how does one not chase
after the past? One does not get carried away with the delight of ‘In the
past I had such a form (body)’…’In the past I had such a feeling’…’In
the past I had such a perception’…’In the past I had such a thought-fabrication”…’In
the past I had such a consciousness.’ This is called not chasing after
the past.

“And how does one place expectations
on the future? One gets carried away with the delight of ‘In the future
I might have such a form (body)’…’In the future I might have such a feeling’…’In
the future I might have such a perception’…’In the future I might have
such a thought-fabrication”…’In the future I might have such a consciousness.’
This is called placing expectations on the future.

“And how does one not place
expectations on the future? One does not get carried away with the delight
of ‘In the future I might have such a form (body)’…’In the future I might
have such a feeling’…’In the future I might have such a perception’…’In
the future I might have such a thought-fabrication”…’In the future I
might have such a consciousness.’ This is called not placing expectations
on the future.

“And how is one vanquished
with regard to present qualities? There is the case where an uninstructed
run-of-the-mill person who has not seen the noble ones, is not versed in
the teachings of the noble ones, is not trained in the teachings of the
noble ones, sees form as self, or self as possessing form, or form as in
self, or self as in form.

“He/she sees feeling
as self,
or self as possessing feeling, or feeling as in self, or self as in feeling.

“He/she sees perception as
self, or self as possessing perception, or perception as in self, or self
as in perception.

“He/she sees thought-fabrications
as self, or self as possessing thought-fabrications, or thought-fabrications
as in self, or self as in thought-fabrications.

“He/she sees consciousness
as self, or self as possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in self,
or self as in consciousness. This is called being vanquished with regard
to present qualities.

“And how is one not vanquished
with regard to present qualities? There is the case where a noble disciple
who has seen the noble ones, is versed in the teachings of the noble ones,
is well-trained in the teachings of the noble ones, does not see form as
self, or self as possessing form, or form as in self, or self as in form.

“He/she does not see
feeling
as self, or self as possessing feeling, or feeling as in self, or self
as in feeling.

“He/she does not see
perception
as self, or self as possessing perception, or perception as in self, or
self as in perception.

“He/she does not see
thought-fabrications
as self, or self as possessing thought-fabrications, or thought-fabrications
as in self, or self as in thought-fabrications.

“He/she does not see
consciousness
as self, or self as possessing consciousness, or consciousness as in self,
or self as in consciousness. This is called not being vanquished with regard
to present qualities.

One would not
chase after the past,


nor place expectations
on the future.


What is past

is
left behind.


The future

is
as yet unreached.


Whatever quality is present

one clearly sees right there,

right there.

Unvanquished, unshaken,

that’s how one develops
the mind.

Ardently doing one’s duty
today,


for — who knows? —
tomorrow


death
may come.


There is no bargaining

with Death and his mighty
horde.

Whoever lives thus ardently,

relentlessly

both
day and night,


has truly had an auspicious
day:


So says the Peaceful
Sage.

“‘Monks, I will teach you the
summary and exposition of one who has had an auspicious day.’ Thus it was
said, and in reference to this was it said.”

That is what the Blessed
One said. Gratified, the monks delighted in the Blessed One’s words.

 


Source: http://world.std.com/~metta/canon/majjhima/mn131.html

(Revised:
9 November 1998 )

Bhaddekaratta Sutta:
The Discourse on the Ideal Lover of Solitude translated from the Pali by Bhikkhu Ñanananda
© 2005–2010
Alternate translation: Thanissaro

Editor’s note: An extensive discussion of this sutta may be found in Ideal Solitude: An Exposition on the Bhaddekaratta Sutta by the translator.

Thus have I heard: At one time the Exalted one was living at Saavatthi in the Jeta Grove, Anaathapi.n.dika’s monastery. There he addressed the monks thus: “Monks.” “Revered one,” the monks answered the
Exalted One in assent. The Exalted one spoke thus “Monks, I shall preach to you the summary and the exposition of the Ideal Lover of Solitude. Listen and give attention. I shall speak.” “Even so, revered sir,” the monks answered the Exalted One in assent. The Exalted One said
this:

Let one not trace back the past
Or yearn for the future-yet-to-come.
That which is past is left behind
Unattained is the “yet-to-come.”
But that which is present he discerns —
With insight as and when it comes.
The Immovable — the-non-irritable.
In that state should the wise one grow
Today itself should one bestir
Tomorrow death may come — who knows?
For no bargain can we strike
With Death who has his mighty hosts.
But one who dwells thus ardently
By day, by night, untiringly
Him the Tranquil Sage has called
The Ideal Lover of Solitude.

“And how, monks, does one trace back the past? He thinks: ‘I was of such form in the past’ and brings delight to bear on it. He thinks: ‘I was of such feeling in the past’ and brings delight to bear on it. He thinks: ‘I was of such perception in the past’ and brings delight to bear on it. He thinks: ‘I was of such formations in the past’ and brings
delight to bear on them. He thinks: ‘I was of such consciousness in the
past’ and brings delight to bear on it. That is how, monks, one traces back the past.

“And how, monks, does one not trace back the past? He thinks: ‘I was of such form in the past’ but brings no delight to bear on it. He thinks: ‘I was of such feeling… of such perception… of such formations…’… He thinks: ‘I was of such consciousness in the past’ but brings no delight to bear on it. That is how, monks, one does not trace back the past.

“And how, monks, does one yearn for the future? He thinks: ‘I may have such form in the future’ and brings delight to bear on it. He thinks: ‘I may have such feeling… such perception… such formations…’… He thinks: ‘I may have such consciousness in the future’ and brings delight to bear on it. That is how, monks, one yearns
for the future.

“And how, monks, does one not yearn for the future? He thinks: ‘I may
have such form in the future’ but brings no delight to bear on it. He thinks: ‘I may have such feeling… such perception… such formations…’… He thinks: ‘I may have such consciousness in the future’ but brings no delight to bear on it. That is how, monks, one does not yearn for the future.

“And how is one drawn into present things? Herein, monks, an uninstructed ordinary man who takes no account of the Noble Ones, is unskilled in the Dhamma of the Noble Ones, untrained in the Dhamma of the Noble Ones, taking no account of the good men, unskilled in the Dhamma of the good men, untrained in the Dhamma of the good men, looks upon form as self, or self as possessed of form, or form as in self, or self as in form. He looks upon feeling as self, or self as possessed of feeling, or feeling as in self, or self as in feeling. He looks upon perception as self, or self as possessed of perception, or perception as
in self, or self as in perception. He looks upon formations as self, or
self as possessed of formations, or formations as in self, or self as in formations. He looks upon consciousness as self, or self as possessed
of consciousness, or consciousness as in self, or self as in consciousness. That is how, monks, one is drawn into present things.

“And how, monks, is one not drawn into present things? Herein, monks,
an instructed Noble disciple who takes into account the Noble Ones, skilled in the Dhamma of the Noble Ones, trained in the Dhamma of the Noble Ones, taking into account the good men, skilled in the Dhamma of the good men, trained in the Dhamma of the good men, does not look upon form as self, or self as possessed of form, or form as in self, or self as in form. He does not look upon feeling as self… He does not look upon perception as self… He does not look upon formations as self… He does not look upon consciousness as self, or self as possessed of consciousness, or consciousness as in self, or self as in consciousness.
That is how, monks, one is not drawn into present things.

Let one not trace back the past
Or yearn for the future-yet-to-come.
That which is past is left behind
Unattained is the “yet-to-come.”
But that which is present he discerns —
With insight as and when it comes.
The Immovable — the-non-irritable.
In that state should the wise one grow
Today itself should one bestir
Tomorrow death may come — who knows?
For no bargain can we strike
With Death who has his mighty hosts.
But one who dwells thus ardently
By day, by night, untiringly
Him the Tranquil Sage has called
The Ideal Lover of Solitude.

So it was with reference to this that it was said: “Monks, I shall preach to you the summary and the exposition of the Ideal Lover of Solitude.”

Thus spoke the Exalted One, Delighted, those monks rejoiced in what the Exalted One had said.

(http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.131.nana.html)